On 2 and 3 June 1946, the most important institutional referendum in Italy’s history was held. Italians citizens were called to decide what form of state – monarchy or republic – to give to the country. The referendum was launched a few years after the fall of fascism and the end of second World War.
There were 12717923 votes in favor of the republicans against 10719284 of the monarchists and Italy became Republic and then King of Italy Umberto II of Savoy, after 85 years of monarchy, on June 13 decided to leave Italy and go exile in Portugal.
The result of the popular consultation was officially ratified on June 18, 1946, when the Court of Cassation declared the birth of the Italian Republic and the Constitution of the Italian Republic came into force on 1 January 1948; it was forbidden to entry into Italy all the male descendants of Umberto II of Savoy, law which was repealed only in 2002.
The Feast of the Italian Republic is therefore a national holiday and one of the Italian patriotic symbols. This is a celebratory day for all of Italy and is set up to remind the birth of the Italian Republic. It celebrates every year on June 2 with the main celebration taking place in Rome.
The ceremony of the event organized in Rome includes the deposition by the President of the Italian Republic of a laurel crown in honor of the Milite Ignoto (Unknown Soldier) at the Altare della Patria (Altar of the Homeland) and to follow a military parade along the Via dei Fori Imperiali.
The Rome official celebration ceremony of the birth of the Italy Republic provides for the Altare della Patria and the tribute to the Milite Ignoto with the deposition of a laurel crown by the President of the Republic in the presence of the highest office of the State (President of the Senate, President of the House, President of the Council of Ministers, President of the Constitutional Court, Defense Minister and Chief of Defense Staff).
Following the execution of the Italian National Anthem (“il Canto degli italiani” Inno by Goffredo Mameli- 1847), the air show in which the Tricolor Arrows cross the skies of Rome with spectacular evolutions and tricolor smoke.
It is then expected that the President of the Republic should go to San Gregorio, escorted by a Corazzieri patrol motorbike where, together with the military commander of the Capital, he reviews military departments deployed for the occasion. Immediately afterwards, the President moves to the Presidential Forum set up in the Imperial Forum, where he attends the military parade with the highest state offices.
All the Italian armed forces, all the police forces of the Republic, the National Guard Fire Service, Civil Protection and the Italian Red Cross are part of the military parade. The military parade was first inserted into the protocol of official celebrations in 1950.